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Table 6 Rotated matrix of the factor analysis for the questions about how severe the misconduct or academic dishonesty is considered

From: Impact of academic integrity on workplace ethical behaviour

Question Cheating in general Plagiarizing or copying and paraphrasing without citing Using unauthorized support
j.Copying from another student during a test or examination WITHOUT his or her knowledge. 0.857   
i.Copying from another student during a test WITH his or her knowledge. 0.842   
u.Using an electronic/digital device as an unauthorized aid during an exam. 0.831   
cc. Cheating on a test in any other way. 0.828   
k.Using digital technology (such as text messaging) to get unpermitted help from someone during a test or examination. 0.824   
f.Helping someone else cheat on a test. 0.820   
r.Submitting a paper you purchased or obtained from a website and claimed it as your own work. 0.789   
s.Using unpermitted handwritten crib notes (or cheat sheets) during a test or exam. 0.786   
p.Turning in a paper from a “paper mill” (a paper written and previously submitted by another student) and claiming it as your own work. 0.736   
y.Turning in work done by someone else. 0.681   
w.Turning in a paper copied, at least in part, from another student’s paper, whether or not the student is currently taking the same course. 0.681   
h.Fabricating or falsifying research data. 0.640   
q.Paraphrasing or copying a few sentences of material from an electronic source - e.g., the internet - without footnoting them in a paper you submitted.   0.783  
o.Paraphrasing or copying a few sentences from a book, magazine, or journal (not electronic or web-based) without footnoting them in a paper you submitted.   0.780  
bb. Using Cliff Notes or Spark Notes and not citing.   0.743  
z.Receiving requests from another person (in person or using electronic means) to copy your homework.   0.663  
x.Using a false or forged excuse to obtain an extension on a due date or delay taking an exam.   0.656  
n.Copying (using digital means such as Instant Messaging or email) another student’s homework.   0.612  
m.Copying (by hand or in person) another student’s homework.   0.609  
aa. Submitting the same paper in more than one course without specific permission.   0.565  
l.Receiving unpermitted help on an assignment.   0.521  
v.Copying material, almost word for word, from any written source and turning it in as your own work.   0.514  
g.Fabricating or falsifying lab data.   0.448  
b.Working on an assignment with others (in person) when the instructor asked for individual work.    0.896
c.Working on an assignment with others (via email or Instant Messaging) when the instructor asked for individual work.    0.887
a.Fabricating or falsifying a bibliography.    0.417
d.Getting questions or answers from someone who has already taken a test.    0.305