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Table 2 Summary of challenges of culture in the Muslim World to promote academic integrity and proposed strategies

From: Academic integrity in the Muslim world: a conceptual map of challenges of culture

Agents within the Cultures Breaches of Academic Integrity Challenges Suggestions from the literature
Students Cheating in exams
Sharing assignments with others
Allowing friends to copy answers
Signing for friends’ attendance
Finding previous assignment for others to copy
Cheating
Plagiarism
Ghost-writing
Bribery
Widespread academic integrity breaches in various levels of education (Abdulghani et al., 2018; Abou-Zeid, 2016). -
Perception among some students that plagiarism, cheating and collusion are acceptable, or not serious and/or not understanding what constitutes an academic integrity breach (Abdulrahman et al., 2017; Cheah, 2016; Imran & Nordin, 2013; Maimunah et al., 2018; Moten, 2014; Nahar, 2018). -
The needs for enhancement of academic skills to help avoid misconducts (Cinali, 2016; Orim, 2016; Shukr & Roff, 2015). -
Religious teaching has little impacts on student attitude toward academic integrity (Quah et al., 2012). Explicitly unpacking and explaining ethical behaviours, and how they relate to ethical values and behaviours in Islam (Fantazy & Al Athamay, 2014).
Negative student peer pressures (Cheah, 2016).
Existing negative collectivist attitudes leading to unethical behaviours among students (Shukr & Roff, 2015; Abou-Zeid, 2016).
Reluctance among students to report breaches (Abdulghani et al., 2018).
Negative influences of social environment on student attitude toward academic integrity (Abdel-Hadi, 2017)
Some students understand that bribery is unacceptable but failed to understand plagiarism and ghost writing (Nahar, 2018) Labelling negative academic behaviours are needed (Abdulghani et al., 2018; Adiningrum, 2015; Orim, 2016; Shukr & Roff, 2015)
Lecturers and Professors Inappropriate referencing
Data manipulation
Data fabrication
Faked research
Self-plagiarism
Breaches of academic integrity among academics including inappropriate referencing and paraphrasing, data manipulation, data fabrication and faked research (Adiningrum, 2015; Hoodbhoy, 2013 as cited in Moten, 2014).  
Reluctance among some faculty to participate in addressing academic integrity breaches (Cheah, 2016).
Onerous process of handling academic integrity breaches (Cheah, 2016). A systematic approach to handling academic integrity breaches (Maimunah et al., 2018; Moten, 2014).
Lack of knowledge of the importance of maintaining academic integrity (Adiningrum, 2015) -
Lack of knowledge of academic integrity among some lecturers, especially understanding the boundaries of ethical and unethical behaviours (e.g. self-plagiarism). (Mohanty, 2016, Adiningrum, 2015)
Insufficient understanding of effective use of academic integrity assisting technologies such as text-matching tools (Adiningrum, 2015).
Institutional culture Plagiarism
Cheating
Ghost-writer
Publication in predatory journals
Lack of academic integrity policy (Moten, 2014, Orim, 2016).  
Lack of policy with detail and emphasis of academic integrity (Shukr & Roff, 2015).
Lacking of accessibility of academic integrity policy by students and faculty (Adiningrum, 2015) The visible and enacted policy to empower and protect subordinates to act when their seniors behave in ways that lack academic integrity (Orim, 2016; Imran & Nurdin, 2013; Shukr & Roff; 2015).
Lack of academic integrity assisted technology such as text-matching tools due to limited fundings (Maimunah et al., 2018).
A lack of consistency in determining the level of breaches and appropriate sanctions and respond to a culture of leniency towards breaches (Adiningrum, 2015; Akbar & Picard, 2019) Clear deterrents and punishments for academic integrity breaches (Cheah, 2016; Moten, 2014).
Corruption, Nepotism and Cronyism (Cinali, 2016)
Institution-lecturer pressures and lecturer-student pressures related to publications (Adiningrum, 2015; Ghazinoory et al., 2011) Supports from higher education institutions in terms of publication and learning support for students and staff are required (Ebadi & Zamani, 2018; Cheah, 2016; Orim, 2016; Adiningrum, 2015).
Lack of funding, facilities and equipment for research (Ebadi and Zamani, 2018)
Lack of effective cooperation among various parties within the universities (Cinali, 2016; Mansoor & Ameen, 2016, Abou-Zeid, 2016, adiningrum, 2015)
Inconsistency implementation of policy and practice of academic interity in faculty level (Adiningrum, 2015)
Lack of Explicit responsibilities and clear procedures to combat academic misconduct (Orim 2016)
Lack of Details within the policies on intentional and unintentional plagiarism (Akbar & Picard, 2019) Shared responsibility and uniformity in the understanding of the importance of academic integrity across different institutions (Adiningrum, 2015; Cinali, 2016; Cinali, 2016).
Learning Culture and Technology Plagiarism
Fabrication
Falsification
Cheating
Emphasis on Memorization, repetition and exam-oriented assessment (Abou-Zeid, 2016; Cinali, 2016; Maimunah et al., 2018; Orim, 2016) Ensuring that learning experiences offer practical skills supporting academic integrity including critical thinking, paraphrasing while implementing process-oriented rather than goal-oriented education (Cinali, 2016; Pallavi & Kaushal, 2017; Quah, Stewart & Lee, 2012)
Teacher-centred classrooms with emphasis of copying and imitating teachers (Orim, 2016)
Previous learning experiences negatively impact on likelihood for breaches of academic integrity in higher education level (Abou-Zeid, 2016; Mohanty, 2016; Orim, 2016).
A substantial number of plagiarised contents in Islamic web-based information and official websites (Moten, 2014).
Societal Culture Plagiarism
Cheating
The practice of Collectivism detrimental to academic integrity (Abou-Zeid, 2016; Cinali, 2016, Adiningrum, 2015; Ghazinoory et al., 2011) Collaborating with Parents and other parties external to the universities in the efforts of creating academic integrity environment (Cinali, 2016; Ghazinoory, Ghazinoori & Azadegan-Mehr, 2011
A culture of power misuse (Wasta culture) (Cinali, 2016)
Lack of supports for academic integrity from social environment (Abou-Zeid, 2016)
Nanny culture (Cinali, 2016)
Parental pressures (Abou-Zeid, 2016; Cinali, 2016; Mohanty, 2016; Nahar, 2018).