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Table 2 SOLO taxonomy explanation

From: Collaborative case-based learning process in research ethics

SOLO taxonomy level, image (Hook 2011) General explanation (Biggs and Tang 2007) Our explanation

Extended abstract level
On the extended abstract level the coherent whole is generalised or re-conceptualised to a higher level of abstraction - the response goes beyond conceptualising, higher level of abstraction with application to new and broader domains. On the extended abstract level, groups went beyond conceptualizing the present issue making steps towards relating the ethical issues to applications beyond the present case.

Relational level
On the relational level relevant aspects are integrated into an overall coherent structure - ability to address the point and provide explanations, give details and connect to the whole, giving relevant examples. On the relational level, groups displayed an ability to address the most relevant ethics issues and provide explanations pointing out interrelations and providing examples demonstrating own reasoning.

Multistructural level
On the multistructural level several aspects have been understood, but not relating them to one another - ability to enumerate, describe, illustrate, sequence, select, combine, follow procedures, but struggle to make the connections between them or draw conclusions based on interrelations. On the multistructural level, the groups demonstrated that concepts had been understood appropriately, but struggled to make connections between them and to draw conclusions based on any interrelations.

Unistructural level
On the unistructural level knowledge enables learner to identify, recognise, count, find, label, match, name, perform simple procedures. One relevant aspect is understood - dealing with terminology, meeting part of the task, defining concepts while some aspects still missing. On the unistructural level, the groups identified one relevant aspect displaying some familiarity with relevant concepts, but failing to address some more pertinent dimensions of the case.

Pre-structural level
On the pre-structural level the issue is not approached in a meaningful way - repeating the words in the question/ simulation/ code; no understanding. On the pre-structural level, the groups failed to identify a relevant ethical perspective or they identified an issue, but did not approach it in a meaningful way, repeating the words in the case without displaying evidence of own processing.