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Table 2 Definitions and Language used to describe Contract Cheating in the Academic Integrity Documents of 22 Publicly-funded Colleges in Ontario, Canada

From: Academic integrity and contract cheating policy analysis of colleges in Ontario, Canada

Summary of Language Used Frequencya
Students required to declare that the work submitted is their own. 1
Students should not submit work completed by another. 5
Submitted work is assumed to be the work of the student who submitted it. 3
Students should not submit work (or conduct research) completed by another, including work purchased or sold. 2
Misrepresenting one’s own work. 3
Buying, selling, or stealing or soliciting material for the purpose of academic gain. 6
A violation of academic integrity (or cheating, plagiarism, impersonation) occurs when a student submits work completed by another. 3
Contract cheating: a form of academic dishonesty in which a student’s academic work is completed by a third party on their behalf and submitted for academic credit. It may involve a fee paid to a third party.b 1
Unclear, none 1
Total 25
  1. aThe primary language used in the documents by an institution was extracted for the frequency count. Most institutions are represented once in the frequency count, but three institutions are represented twice. bDefinition verbatim from Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology (2015, p. 2)