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Table 4 Chi-Square Results of Citations in regard to M.A. vs. PhD Theses Writers

From: An investigation of the citation transformation types in M.A. and PhD theses

  Direct Quotation Patch-writing Paraphrase Summary Critical Evaluation Incorrect citation use  
M.A. writers 704,575.88 (28.50) 376,278.46 (34.17) 1051 1027.46 (0.54) 1116 1311.57 (29.16) 262,347.87 (21.20) 188,155.77 (6.67) 3697
PhD writers 722,851.12 (19.29) 314,411.54 (23.12) 1495 1518.54 (0.36) 2134 1938.43 (19.73) 600,514.13 (14.34) 198,230.23 (4.51) 5464
Total 1426 690 2546 3250 862 386 9161
  1. aExpected values are displayed in italics and Individual X2 values are displayed in parentheses