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Table 3 The Distribution of Citations in Analysed M.A. and PhD Theses in regard to Type of Transformation

From: An investigation of the citation transformation types in M.A. and PhD theses

M.A Theses PhD Theses
Type of Transformations F % The order of preferencea F % The order of preferencea
Direct Quotation 704 19.0 3 723 13.2 3
Patchwriting 376 10.2 4 314 5.7 5
Paraphrase 1051 28.4 2 1495 27,4 2
Summary 1116 30.2 1 2134 39.1 1
Critical Evaluation 262 7.1 5 600 11.0 4
Total 3509 94.9   5266 96.4  
Incorrect Citation Use 118 5.1   198 3.6  
Total 3697 5.11   5464   
  1. af = Frequency, % = Percentage
  2. a(1 = most preferred…5 = least preferred)