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Table 2 Chi-Square Results of Types of Transformations in terms of English L1 vs. L2 Writers

From: An investigation of the citation transformation types in M.A. and PhD theses

  Direct Quotation Patch-writing Paraphrase Summary Critical Evaluation Incorrect citation use  
English writers 378,678.60 (133.15) 15,328.35 (299.04) 1322 1211.57 (10.06) 1812 1546.59 (45.55) 723,410.20 (238.52) 109,183.69 (30.37) 4359
Turkish writers 1048 747.40 (120.90) 675,361.65 (271.51) 1224 1334.43 (9.14) 1438 1703.41 (41.35) 139,451.80 (216.56) 277,202.31 (27.57) 4802
Total 1426 690 2546 3250 862 386 9161
  1. aExpected values are displayed in italics and Individual X2 values are displayed in parentheses