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Table 1 The Distribution of Citations in English L1 and Turkish Writers’ Analysed Theses in regard to the Type of Transformations

From: An investigation of the citation transformation types in M.A. and PhD theses

English L1 Writers’ Theses Turkish Writers’ Theses
Type of Transformations F % The order of preferencea F % The order of preferencea
Direct Quotation 378 8.7 4 1048 21.8 3
Patchwriting 15 0.3 5 675 14.1 4
Paraphrase 1322 30.03 2 224 25.5 2
Summary 1812 41.6 1 1438 29.9 1
Critical Evaluation 723 16.6 3 139 2.9 5
Total 4250 97.5   4525 94.2  
Incorrect Citation Use 109 2.5   277 5.8  
Total 4359    4802   
  1. af = Frequency, % = Percentage
  2. a(1 = most preferred…5 = least preferred)