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Table 3 Teachers’ views on frequency of types of cheating – mean scores and Mann-Whitney U test results

From: Addressing cheating in e-assessment using student authentication and authorship checking systems: teachers’ perspectives

  University A University B Mann-Whitney_U
  N = 31 N = 100 U-test p
FACE-TO-FACE: In invigilated exams carried out in a face-to-face environment, or in non-invigilated assessments (e.g. assignments such as essays, course work, or dissertations) submitted on paper
 1. Impersonation of a student, during the exam by someone else (for example, by someone who looks like them) 0.1 0.2 868.5 0.945
 2. Copying from the work of other students in the exam room 1.5 2.2 836.5 0.005
 3. Receiving hints from other students in the exam room 1.5 2.4 699.0 0.000
 4. Copying from materials (on paper, on a mobile device, etc) taken into the exam hall 1.2 2.0 726.0 0.006
 5. Submission of text written in advance of the exam 0.5 0.8 821.0 0.082
 6. Using a device with headphones to receive assistance from someone outside the exam room 0.1 1.1 300.5 0.000
 7. Giving an excuse to leave the exam room temporarily, and then gaining access to outside help (from hidden notes or from other people) 0.0 1.2 234.0 0.000
 8. Plagiarism 2.0 2.2 914.0 0.189
 9. ‘Ghost writing’, that is where the assignment is carried out by someone else (e.g. a friend, a family member, a teacher), or is purchased from a web site 1.8 2.0 819.0 0.078
ONLINE: In non-invigilated exams or assessments (e.g. assignments such as essays, course work, or dissertations) carried out in an online environment (including where the assessments are submitted online)
 10. Impersonation of the student, during the exam by someone else (for example, by someone who logs in with their id) 0.6 0.4 413.0 0.537
 11. Communication (e.g. by mobile) with other people during the assessment 0.7 0.6 514.5 0.984
 12. Copying from materials on an electronic device where this is not allowed in the exam 0.8 0.7 445.5 0.461
 13. Plagiarism 1.2 1.7 550.0 0.074
 14. ‘Ghost writing’, that is where the assignment is carried out by someone else (e.g. a friend, a family member, a teacher), or is purchased from a web site 1.2 1.5 458.0 0.072