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Table 1 Number of students, differences between unsupervised and supervised assessment items (percentage point), and unusual patterns (UP % of students) by academic area

From: Can we detect contract cheating using existing assessment data? Applying crime prevention theory to an academic integrity issue

   Unsupervised% − supervised%      
Academic area N Avg. SD UP1% UP2% UP3% UP4% UP5%
Justice studies (BJU) 354 1.9 14.1 1.7% 4.2% 0.0% 0.0% 1.4%
Criminology (CRM) 641 6.4 17.7 8.4%** 14.5%** 1.7%** 1.9%** 9.7%**
Bachelor Law (LAW) 1282 5.8 14.2 5.5*% 8.5% 0.9% 0.7% 4.7%
Legal studies (LEG) 240 1.1 14.9 3.8% 5.4% 0.4% 0.8% 4.6%
Bachelor Law (LLB) 1161 3.6 14.0 3.0% 6.6% 0.3% 0.3% 4.2%
Master Law (LLM) 120 0.1 13.2 1.7% 2.5% 0.0% 0.0% 1.7%
Total 3798 4.4 14.9 4.6% 8.1% 0.7% 0.7% 5.0%
Inverse rule violation 1.2% 2.6% 0.1% 0.4% 4.9%
  1. Z-proportion indicated significantly larger more frequent relative to the whole sample *p < .05, **p < .01 (Z > 1.64, one-tailed)