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Table 1 Summary of Google® searches for phrases containing ‘ghost-writer’

From: A close encounter with ghost-writers: an initial exploration study on background, strategies and attitudes of independent essay providers

Search term Hits 2013 Hits in 2016 Percent difference*
Ghost writing 794,000 12,700,0000 1499.2 %
Problem of Ghost writing 480,000 2,680,000 458.3 %
Definition of ghost writing 878,000 540,000 −38.5 %
Ghost writing in higher education 469,000 367,000 −21.7 %
How to ghost write 55,672,000 4,270,000 −92.3 %
Detecting ghost writing 114,000 90,100 −21.0 %
Contract cheating NAa 23,000,000 NAa
Definition of contract cheating NAa 6,460,000 NAa
Contract cheating in Higher Education NAa 480,000 NAa
  1. A positive/negative percentage denotes the increase/reduction in number of hits respectively
  2. a NA Non-applicable
  3. *Negative numbers show a percentage reduction